Mamoru Matsuoka: A Tribute to an Important Historian

Students and writers of Meiji Restoration history lost an important teacher this week with the passing of historian Mamoru Matsuoka in Kochi, Japan, his hometown, and also the home of major Restoration figures such as Sakamoto Ryoma, Takechi Hanpeita, and Nakaoka Shintaro, on whom he wrote insightful and meticulously researched biographies.

Of several fine biographies of Ryoma that I have read, Matsuoka-sensei’s Teihon Sakamoto Ryoma-denis the “authoritative edition,” as the title indicates. His works on Takechi and Nakaoka have been of particular value to me as a writer because of the dearth of reliable biographies about these two men.

Matsuoka-sensei was my friend. As a writer, I am greatly indebted to him. My deepest condolences to his family.

[The photo of Matsuoka-sensei was taken in the garden at the ancestral home of Takechi Hanpeita in Kochi, on November 13, 2015. These six of his books are, clockwise from upper left: “Nakaoka Shintaro-den” (biography of Nakaoka Shintaro); “Teihon Sakamoto Ryoma-den” (biography of Sakamoto Ryoma: authoritative edition); “Takechi Hanpeita-den” (biography of Takechi Hanpeita); “Takechi Hanpeita”; “Seiden Okada Izo” (authentic biography of Okada Izo); “Tosa Kinno-to Shuryo Takechi Zuizan: Mikokai Shiryo no Shokai” (Tosa Loyalist Party Leader Takechi Zuizan: A Presentation of Unpublished Materials)]

Shiba Ryotaro’s “Junshi”

Shiba Ryotaro’s masterpiece Ryoma ga Yuku immortalized Sakamoto Ryoma in the psyche of the Japanese people. Along with that book and many others by Shiba, I also love this one, Junshi, about Nogi Maresuke (Nogi Taisho), the famed hero of the Russo-Japan War, formerly a samurai of Choshu, whose seppuku in the wake of the death of the Meiji Emperor shocked the country. Junshi is the ancient practice of following one’s lord in death – and Shiba’s account of the incident is nothing short of awesome.

Shiba Ryotaro’s Masterpiece: “Ryoma ga Yuku”

shiba ryo with ryoma et al

Among my favorite Japanese writers is the prolific historical novelist Shiba Ryotaro (1923 – 1996), whose masterpiece Ryoma ga Yuku immortalized Sakamoto Ryoma in the psyche of the Japanese people. Originally published in serial form in the national newspaper Sankei Shimbun in 1962, this epic of the life and times of Sakamoto Ryoma comprises eight paperback volumes in its current printed form. My other favorite books by Shiba include Moeyo-ken, which focuses on Hijikata Toshizo, vice commander of the Shinsengumi; Yotte Soro, whose protagonist, Yamauchi Yodo, the flamboyant daimyo of Ryoma’s native Tosa, played an important role in this history; Hitokiri Izo, the haunting portrait of the notorious assassin Okada Izo; and Saigo no Shogun, about the life and times of the brilliant last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu. Among these, Yotte Soro and Saigo no Shogun have been published in English under the respective titles of Drunk as a Lord (Yodo’s nom de plume was Geikaisuiko, “Drunken Lord of the Sea of Whales,” for the rich bounty of whales off the Tosa coast), and The Last Shogun: The Life of Tokugawa Yoshinobu.

I was introduced to Sakamoto Ryoma and the epic history of the Bakumatsu (i.e., the final fifteen years of the Tokugawa Shogunate: 1853 – 1868) through Ryoma ga Yuku, when a friend gave me a copy of Vol. 1, sometime around 1982. I owe my inspiration for my historical novel, Ryoma: Life of a Renaissance Samurai, to Shiba’s book.

The above photo from Ryoma Rekishikan, a museum in Kochi, Japan, shows one of 27 scenes of wax figures, some historical others personal, from the life of Sakamoto Ryoma. The fourth scene on the tour depicts Ryoma’s birth in Kochi in 1835. Scene 26 shows the gruesome assassinations of Ryoma and his friend Nakaoka Shintaro in Kyoto in 1867. The final scene, number 27, depicts four immortals, perhaps discussing the state of Japan and the world today: Shiba Ryotaro sits opposite Ryoma, joined by Mitsubishi founder Iwasaki Yataro (left) and Nakaoka.

Below is a photo of my set of Ryoma ga Yuku, the jackets long since worn out.

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My Favorite Japanese History Writers: Part I

The best writers of Japanese history are, quite naturally, Japanese. Nearly all of them concentrate on the most important era in modern Japanese history: the final fifteen years of the Tokugawa Shogunate, from the arrival of Perry in the summer of 1853, which kicked off the revolution, to the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in late 1868. Japanese writers call this era “Bakumatsu,” literally “end of the shogunate.” I describe it as “the samurai revolution at the dawn of modern Japan.”

Japanese writers concentrate on the Bakumatsu not only because it is the beginning of modern Japan, but also because it is by far the most interesting and spellbinding era in Japanese history. In writing about this history they naturally focus on the most powerful and spellbinding personalities of the era. These include such household names as Sakamoto Ryoma, Saigo Takamori, Katsu Kaishu, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Takasugi Shinsaku, Yoshida Shoin, Katsura Kogoro, Takechi Hanpeita, Nakaoka Shintaro, Okubo Toshimichi, Sakuma Shozan, Yamanouchi Yodo, Tokugawa Nariaki, and last but not least the Shinsengumi, an organization whose leaders, Kondo Isami and Hijikata Toshizo garner the most attention. Readers of my books are familiar with all of these personalities and more.

When I started studying this history over thirty years ago, I was living in Tokyo. At first I read everything I could get my hands on about the Bakumatsu. It didn’t take long before I discovered that there was a gaping dearth of material in English about the Bakumatsu. So I naturally focused on Japanese writers, and after a few years of reading I was able to discern the best among them. I adopted their approach to writing this history, including their focus on the most powerful and spellbinding personalities. These Japanese writers have been my teachers throughout my writing career. My debt to them is enormous.

Following is the first part of a series of articles in which I introduce these writers. (In keeping with normal Japanese practice, their names are presented with family name first.)

Hirao Michio (平尾道雄) (1900 – 1979) : Hirao Michio might be called the “godfather” of Tosa historians during the 20th century. His biographies of Sakamoto Ryoma, Nakaoka Shintaro, and Yamanouchi Yodo are definitive. His two most well-known books on Ryoma are probably Sakamoto Ryoma: Kainetai Shimatsuki (坂本龍馬 海援隊始末記) and Ryoma no Subete (龍馬のすべて). Of his writings on Nakaoka, I have mostly referred to Nakaoka Shintaro: Rikuentai Shimatsuki (中岡新太郎 陸援隊始末記). (The “Kaientai” in the title the first Ryoma biography cited refers to Ryoma’s Naval Auxiliary Corps in Nagasaki. The “Rikuentai” in the title of the Nakaoka biography refers to Nakaoka’s Land Auxiliary Corps in Kyoto.) Hirao’s history of the Shinsengumi, Teihon Shinsengumi Shiroku (定本新撰組史録 = The Definitive History of the Shinsengumi), was published in 1928, shortly after Shimozawa Kan’s more famous Shinsengumi Shimatsuki (新選組始末記). Like Hirao’s other books, it is invaluable. I referred to it while writing Shinsengumi: The Shogun’s Last Samurai Corps. I have also referred to Hirao’s Ishin Ansatsu Hiroku (維新暗殺秘録), a collection of accounts of historically significant assassinations during the Bakumatsu.

The closest I ever got to actually meeting Hirao Michio was vicariously through Ogura Katsumi, then-curator of The Sakamoto Ryoma Memorial Museum in Kochi. Mr. Ogura, a former newscaster at a TV station in Kochi, served as the moderator of a symposium about Sakamoto Ryoma held in Yonago City, Tottori, in May 2002. I was invited as a panelist and stayed at the same hotel as Mr. Ogura, who briefly shared with me memories of Mr. Hirao and also of Marius Jansen, the Princeton historian perhaps best known for his biography Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration. I regret that I never had the chance to meet Prof. Jansen, whom Mr. Ogura had met in Kochi. While the two of us spoke at our hotel, Mr. Ogura told me that my “Japanese pronunciation is better” than Prof. Jansen’s – mere flattery, I’m sure! Mr. Ogura’s books include Ryoma ga Nagai Tegami wo Kaku Toki (龍馬が長い手紙を書く時 = When Ryoma Wrote Long Letters). Mr. Ogura passed away in May 2005.

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